Tuesday, December 01, 2020


AS 1668, AS 1359, BS 7349, BS 4999, BS 5000, IEC 34, IEC 72.


Western Electric Smoke Spill motors are designed to meet the requirements of Bitish and Australian Standards.

AS 1668. 1 states that the objectives of Smoke Control are:

        a) to vent smoke from the fir-affected compartment: and

        b) to reduce the spread of smoke to fire isolated exits and other compartments.


In general Smoke Spimm motors are required to continue to operate driving extraction fans in a building, in the case of a fire. Usually these motors operate air circulation fans as part of the normal operation of the building, however if a fire occurs they must continue to operate for a period of time to extract smoke and\or dangerous fumes from the building and allow rescue services some assistance in rescuing any occupants still in the building. it is expected that hte fumes being extracted will be at high temperatures, well above normal ambients. These motors must be able to operate for a short period in high ambient temperatures - usually 250deg C. for 2 hours.


AS 1668.1 defines a Smoke-Spill fan as follows:

Each Smoke-Spill fan, complete with its drive, flexible connections and control gear, shall be constructed and installed so that it is capable of continous operation at it’s rates capacity as required as follows:

        a) Except as required be b), the fan shall operate for a period of not less that 2 hours with a smoke-spill air temperatures of 200 deg C.

         b) Where the smoke-spill fan serves as a single compartment and is located at the same level as the compartment. it shall operate for a period of not less that 30 minutes with a smoke spill air temperature of 300 deg C.

If the building has an approved aprinkler system installed throughout and fire isolated exits are pressurized, the need only comply with a), as above.

Motors driving such fans may be mounted in the air stream provided -

        i) They are capable of operating at the appropriate temperatures and for the specified period : and

        ii) any intergral high temperature cut-outs fitted are electrically isolated during a smoke control operations



Voltages 380v, 400v, plus other options.

Frequency 50Hz, (60Hz)

Speeds - single speed or 2 speed

Connections - 2.2 Kw and below- 240v Delta/ 415v Star.

3Kw and above - 415v Dleta with 6 leads for Star and Delta startings.

2 speed motors are supplied for DOL starting only. If star/ delta starting is required it must be specified with the inquiry and the order.

Protection - TP55, (IP56, IP65, IP66).

Shaft Hole - all motors are supplied with a drilled and tapped hole to DIN standards, in the end of the shaft.

Cooling - TEFC, (Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled), TEAO, (Totally Enclosed Air Over). TEAO motors are supplied without a cooling fan and rely on the air flow from the ‘load’ fan they are driving for their cooling.

Terminations/Connections - Standard Terminal box and terminal block oe extended leads and a blanking plate.

Special Requirements for Smoke Spill motors.

Bearings with C3 or C4 radial clearances.

High Temperature Grease.

Stainless Steel Nameplates.

Special Stator Windings - Class H or Class F, depending on the time and termperature rating specified by the customer. Class H windings with special materials are also available.


The following information is Required when ordering a Smoke Spill motor.

Kw ratings (or rating for 2 speed)

Speed or Speeds.


Temperature Rating in deg. C.

Time Requirement

Mounting - foot or flange


Standard Terminal Box or Blanking Plate and Extended leads

With or without fan.

With or without fan cowl.

With or without anticondensation heaters.

(Only to be operated when the motor is off)

With or without thermistors. (Thermistor circuit will need to be disabled in the case of a fire)

Type of motor starter or if using a variable frequency drive.


Motor Testing

Sample motors, prepared to Western Electric Smoke Spill Specifications, have been tested, and independently witnessed, to ensure compliance with the following requirements:

200 deg C. for 2 hours

250 deg C. for 3 hours

300 deg C. for 30 minutes.


The motors were run in a normal ambient temperature at full load driving a fan until the temperature stabilized at normal operating temperature. The motor/fan units were then placed into a large oven at the required temperature and continued to operate for the required time. The motors were closely monitored during these tests, and all data was recorded. Copies of the test reports on these motors are available on request.


The Future

Australian Standards have produced a new Draft Standard called "Methods of Test and Rating Requirements for Smoke Spill Fans". This standard is based on the requirements of the European Standard EN BKXF-3 "Specifications for powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilators"

The following sections are all taken from the new draft standard.

The foreword to the draft standard states:


Smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems are used widely to create smoke free areas beneath a buoyant smoke layer and to create negative pressures in fire affected compartments. These actions assist in evacuating people from a building, reducing fire and smoke damage, facilitating firefighting and retarding the lateral spread of the fire.


When air and the products of combustion are exhausted from a building by mechanical means in the event of a fire, a powered fan (known as a smoke spill fan) is generally used. It is therefore essential that the smoke spill fan temperature conditions when called upon to do so.


Dual Purpose smoke-spill fan - a smoke spill fan that has provision to allow its use for day to day comfort ventilation.


Smoke spill fan motor range - a range comprising smoke spill fan motors from the same manufacturer, which are physically similar, using the same form of construction and material and manufacturing method for the carcass, the cooling impeller when fitted, and end covers; the same insulation specification which includes insulation used for coil separation and slot insulation, winding impregnation materials (varnish or resin, tec. lead insulation, terminal blocks and other materials that could affect the integrity of the insulation): same bearing type, internal radial clearance, class of fit, lubricant and arrangement. The motor windings shall also be based on the same maximum winding temperature and class of insulation, in accordance with IEC34.1

The following may vary across the range -

a) the frame size;

b) the rotational speed;

c) the electrical windings, including multispeed;

d) he form of mounting, e.g. foot, flange, pad, clamp


Motor Rating/Motor Selection. The motors shall be selected for continuous operation at the power level required or the sir density at normal ambient temperature, not just for operation at elevated temperatures and lower densities.


Motor Rating/Insulation Integrity. The integrity of the insulation in motors is very dependent on the operational temperature of the windings. Relatively small decreases in the temperature rise above ambient will significantly extend the life of the insulation. Motor ratings for smoke spill fans shall be limited by the temperature rise for one class lower that the insulation class of the motor, as defined in IEC34.1 and given in the table below:


1. It is recommended that motor ratings for all smoke spill fans be limited by temperature rise for one class lower that the insulation class of the motor.

2. The mechanical integrity of smoke spill fan motors placed in the airstream or subject to thermal conduction effects in determined largely by the ability of the lubricated bearings, supporting the motor shaft, to function satisfactorily at elevated temperatures. This mechanical integrity is enhanced by selecting the appropriate class of fit, internal radial clearance and lubrication for the rated smoke spill operating time and temperature. As a guide, bearings used in smoke spill fans which are exposed to elevated temperatures should have a C3 radial clearance and the appropriate high temperature lubricant suitable for the time/temperature rating.


Alternative Insulation. As an alternative for motors with Class B or Class F insulation, the motor rated power output should be 15% above the absorbed power for an air density of 1.2kg/m3.


Time/Temperature Ratings

Test Time and Temperature According to Rating

Notes: Rating 3 & 4 are not called for in AS 1668. 1, but are included within this Standard to accommodate ratings which may be specified by overseas markets. The special ratings may include other ratings requested by the supplier. (Refer to table below)



In the past there has been some confusion about exactly what tests and test procedures should be conducted on motors and fans to ensure that they will meet the requirements of Smoke spill standards. When this new standard is adopted (probably in 1998) it will ensure uniformity and compliance with the requirements of the standard for all motors that have been tested to this standard.


Another area of concern is that although new motors and fans will pass the requirements of the standard there is some doubt that they would comply with the requirements after they have been operating for 5 years. It has been suggested in Australia that all smoke spill motors should be replaced with new motors after a period of time - maybe 5 or 10 years. The new draft standard tries to address this problem by keeping the temperature rise of the motor during normal operation well below the rating of the materials. The bearings and grease are still probably the weakest link and will probably fail first without good maintenance.


Western Electric Australia plan to set up a test rig as specified in the new draft standard for combined motor and fan testing in compliance with the proposed new standard, so that when the new standard is released we will be ready with a range of motors tested to the requirements and independently witnessed. We will also offer this test facility to the fan producers to test the compliance to their fans.


Western Electric have always tried to ensure that the motors we supply for smoke spill applications are of the highest quality and designed to give reliable performance over many years. Smoke spill motors need to be well made and reliable because people’s lives are at stake if these motors do not perform to Smoke Spill Standards when they are needed.


The following tables and comments are an attempt to cross reference between different National standards for Hazardous Location Definitions. We note that there is a world wide trend towards IEC standards in the electrical industry and that even the American manufacturers are gearing up to produce products to IEC standards in IEC metric dimensions.




B.S.6467 & A.S. 2236







Representative Gases
II IIA II IIA 1 D Propane
IIB IIB 2 C Ethylene
IIB IIC 3n 3a B Hydrogen
IIB 3b None Carbon Disulphide
IIB 3c A Acetylene


(RIIS - TR - 79 - 1)
(NEC 1984)
Class Maximum Surface
Temp. deg.C.
Class Maximum Surface
Temp. deg.C.
Class Maximum Surface
Temp. deg.C.
T1 450 G1 360 T1 450 450
T2 300 G2 240 T2
T3 200 G3 160 T3
T4 135 G4 110 T4
T5 100 G5 80 T5 100 100
T6 85 G6 70 T6 85 85

The tables above are a compilation of information from various sources which we believe to be correct, however, we can accept no responsibility for any inaccuracies.


Americans refer to “Explosion Proof”, while the UK and IEC refer to “Flameproof” motors or equipment. In IEC definitions this is an Ex d piece of equipment. Ex d equipment is designed to contain an internal explosion to escape between the “flamepaths”, but cool any flame in the hot gases so that no flames escape from the enclosure to ignite any external flammable gases - hence “Flameproof”.

Although Ex e equipment is designed to be used in a Zone 1 area it cannot be described as “Explosion Proof” or “Flameproof”, as it will not contain an explosion if one did occur. Ex e equipment is manufactured to an approved “Explosion Proof Technique”.

Saturday, June 06, 2020

The typical fuse consists of an element which is surrounded by a filler and enclosed by the fuse body.
The element is welded or soldered to the fuse contacts (blades or ferrules).

The element is a calibrated conductor. Its configuration, its mass, and the materials employed are selected to achieve the desired electrical and thermal characteristics. The element provides the current path through the fuse. It generates heat at a rate that is dependent upon its resistance and the load current.
Mersen (Gould Ferraz Shawmut) Fuse Construction

The heat generated by the element is absorbed by the filler and passed through the fuse body to
the surrounding air. A filler such as quartz sand provides effective heat transfer and allows for the
small element cross-section typical in modern fuses. The effective heat transfer allows the fuse to carry harmless overloads. The small element cross section melts quickly under short circuit conditions. The filler also aids fuse performance by absorbing arc energy when the fuse clears an overload or short circuit.

When a sustained overload occurs, the element will generate heat at a faster rate than the heat can be passed to the filler. If the overload persists, the element will reach its melting point and open. Increasing the applied current will heat the element faster and cause the fuse to open sooner. Thus fuses have an inverse time current characteristic, i.e. the greater the over-current the less time required for the fuse to open the circuit.

This characteristic is desirable because it parallels the characteristics of conductors, motors,
transformers and other electrical apparatus. These components can carry low level overloads for
relatively long times without damage. However, under high current conditions damage can occur quickly. Because of its inverse time current characteristic, a properly applied fuse can provide
effective protection over a broad current range, from low level overloads to high level short circuits.

Monday, March 02, 2020

Level sensors have been a part of manufacturing processes for several decades, in industries as diverse as food and beverage, semiconductors, and pharmaceutical. However, equipment manufacturers and users may be surprised at both the breadth and sophistication of level sensing alternatives currently available. 

Measurements and actions that used to require large, mechanical, and expensive devices can now be performed using advanced, highly versatile technologies that are also durable, precise, and easy to implement. What’s more, a variety of level sensing technology options work well with what have traditionally been challenging substances such as sticky fluids (e.g., molasses, glue, ink) and foam(beer, pulp, hydraulic fluid, soap). 

Some users may question the need for such technology - or any level sensing device, for that matter - arguing that existing, “tried-and-true” methods are well-suited for the basic nature of most level sensing tasks. But today’s manufacturing environment is hardly that simple. Given the increasingly competitive nature of the marketplace, plus the ongoing drive to minimize inefficiencies and waste, no operation can afford processes that are merely “close enough.” Dependability is also paramount if caustic or otherwise hazardous materials are involved.

In other words, level sensing is like any other part of the manufacturing process; it has to be precise, reliable, and cost-effective.

SICK Level Sensing

Level sensing 101 

To determine the best sensor for a particular application, it’s important to first understand what technology options are available, as well as their advantages and limitations. Following are some of today’s most frequently used level sensing methods. 


This technology offers the broadest availability of offerings, flexibility, ease of set-up and alignment, and cost. While lasers work well for bulk and liquid, continuous, and switching applications, it’s not as well-suited for clear materials, foam (light loss due to dispersion), or sticky fluids (lens contamination).


Because of its ability to penetrate temperature and vapor layers that may cause problems for other techniques, guided microwave technology (also known as guided radar)compares well with lasers as they don’t need calibration and have multiple output options.Guided microwave is also among the handful of technologies that works well with foam and sticky materials. However, guided microwave sensors do have a limited detection range in some applications.

Tuning Fork. 

This vibrating-style sensor technology is ideal for solid and liquid detection,including sticky substances and foam, as well as bulk powders. However, tuning forks are limited to detection applications (i.e., overfill and dry run), and do not provide continuous process measurement. The mounting position of the devices is also critical.


These devices, which gauge levels by measuring the duration and intensity of echoes from short bursts of energy, share the same capabilities as lasers and offer flexibility in mounting and outputs. The technology is ideal for many types of liquids, but performance drops off in applications involving foam. Range is more limited than laser offerings and alignment of the emitting/detection and reflection components is also critical.

Optical Prism.

Inexpensive and simple to set-up and operate, optical sensors detect variations in emitted light. However, optical prisms work only in clean translucent to transparent liquids,while their limited “on/off” functionality also restricts their use to protecting from overflows and dry runs. 


Used for a variety of liquids, pressure sensors measure the hydro-static pressure of the liquid at the bottom of the tank with respect to atmospheric pressure to determine the level of the liquid. Though highly accurate, pressure sensors’ setup and calibration requirements make them more of a specialty solution in situations where all other options are not viable due to the type of liquid, or configuration of the tank itself. For example, the tank bottom may have a funnel or cone shape, or there may be a motor or agitator positioned in the middle that prevents a straight-down view. 


Capacitance level sensors operate with a variety of solids, liquids, and mixed materials. There are also a wide range of device types, some of which can be attached outside the vessel. Users need to be cautious when selecting a device, as not every capacitance senor works with every type of material or vessel. In addition, some capacitive probes can give continuous output much the way guided microwaves or conductive probes do, but need to be calibrated to the material being measured. And because capacitance probes are a contact-based measurement system, the technology is not always suitable for use with sticky fluids. 


The oldest and simplest measuring technology can still be found in automated manufacturing processes. Being a mechanical device, however, floats offer little other advantage to users for all but the most basic applications.

SICK Level Sensors

Decision time

In some respects, matching a level sensor with a particular application may seem relatively simple. One question - the desired result, is usually a matter of either switching/detection for dry-run and overflow protection, or continuous monitoring for process management.

Here, the continuum from basic performance to “smart” sensors is rather straightforward. Tuning forks, optical prisms, and some capacitance sensors are restricted to switching applications. Other technologies work for both switching and measurement - laser, guided microwaves, ultrasonic, pressure, and float.

But the other key consideration - what is being measured - is not so simple. Solids and liquids have multiple dimensions and characteristics, any one of which can influence its ability to be accurately measured. 

For example, both solids and liquids can be clear, translucent, or opaque. Minute texture variations of some powdery substances may also affect how a sensor reacts, as can a liquid’s viscosity and density. 

Color variations may also be an issue with some types of level sensors. And, as noted earlier,particularly challenging applications further restrict the range of options. When dealing with foam, sticky liquids, or clear liquids, for example, guided microwaves and vibrating forks may well be the only option.

The table below can serve as a helpful starting point to find the best level sensor technology for a particular application. In making these evaluations,users and equipment manufactures should also ask operations-related questions.

For example, what kind of control capabilities do the sensors have, and what training operator training is required. Will the material being measured affect the sensor’s performance over time, requiring maintenance for cleaning and/or replacement? If so, how often should preventative work be scheduled,and what are the downtime implications? What is the expected life of a particular sensor? And if the process involves multiple types of materials with varying characteristics, will changeovers be an issue? 

The above information is designed to provide a basic guide to the growing range of level sensing technology. Because most of these approaches continue to evolve with the introduction of new and enhanced products, the best way to ensure a full evaluation of available options - especially for unique or challenging applications - is via a collaboration involving the manufacturing system owner, machine builders, and technology suppliers. Thorough and thoughtful assessments of sensor technologies will lead to better decisions, resulting in better product quality and optimized production efficiency.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

For visualization tasks with CODESYS V2 and V3: WAGO’s attractive e!DISPLAY 7300T HMI Panels help you reinforce the quality of your machinery and equipment with a refined design. HMI panels are the perfect finishing touch for machines or systems, and the look and feel of these panels positively impacts purchase decisions. WAGO offers aesthetically pleasing HMIs that leave a lasting impression shile significantly increasing the value and improving the image of your machine or system: The e!DISPLAY 7300T Web Panel is available in 4.3″, 5.7″, 7.0″ and 10.1″ display sizes.
Your benefits with e!DISPLAY Web Panels:
  • High-performance HMI display with a resistive touch screen for Web-based visualization
  • Available in four screen sizes (4.3″, 5.7″, 7.0″ and 10.1″)
  • Modern visualization via CODESYS V2 and e!COCKPIT (based on CODESYS V3)
  • Support new technologies such as HTML5
  • High-performance solutions when combined with PFC200 and PFC100 Controllers

What Makes e!DISPLAY Web Panels Successful?

Web Panels that Merge Aesthetics with High Performance

WAGO's e!DISPLAY Web Panel merges a sleek design with some of the industry’s most powerful software: With e!DISPLAY, you can shape the high-tech image of your machine or system by displaying high-quality visualizations from both e!COCKPIT (CODESYS V3) and CODESYS V2 engineering software. The Web-Based Management feature of WAGO’s controllers may also be operated using the stylish Web Panels. New technology, such as HTML5, is also available for programming via e!COCKPIT. Java runtime for CODESYS V2 WebVisu is also included.

Easy To Use – Set Brightness Directly on the Display

The e!DISPLAY HMI Panel has a resistive touch screen, flanked by three status LEDs that indicate operating status and provide operational feedback. An easy-to-customize configuration interface is available for configuring and commissioning WAGO's Web Panels. Important settings are quickly and intuitively performed via Web-Based Management, such as connecting to one or more WAGO Controllers. Furthermore, sensors can automatically adjust the brightness of e!DISPLAY based on a room’s ambient lighting conditions. For quick and easy custom settings, the display brightness can also be manually adjusted via front-mount button.

Energy-Saving Sensors on the Web Panel Ensure Safety

e!DISPLAY has an integrated proximity sensor. This sensor allows the visualization to be automatically re-displayed from the energy-saving standby function and screensaver. A motion sensor simultaneously detects ambient lighting levels for brightness control.

Quick Installation via Unique Mounting Design

The e!DISPLAY HMI Panel directly latches onto the control cabinet via mounting clips for quick and easy tool-free installation. IP65 levels of protection can be achieved for the front of the display via special clamping elements. This design flexibility makes the display extremely versatile and suitable for a wide variety of applications. Furthermore, the VESA mount allows installation on a swivel arm or stand outside of the control cabinet.

Seamless Integration into the WAGO Product Range

The more harmonious component integration is, the better performance and reliability will be. WAGO's e!DISPLAY provides visualizations via the e!COCKPIT Engineering Software (based on CODESYS V3) and CODESYS V2. High-performance solutions are yours when e!DISPLAY is backed by WAGO’s industry-leading PFC200 and PFC100 Controllers – all from a single source.

A fast CPU, flanked by a large amount of data processing, a runtime system with e!COCKPIT, Linux® and multiple interfaces, as well as cybersecurity via SSL/TLS encryption, VPN and a firewall: This is what the PFC100 Controller offers!

Diverse outputs in a compact housing! With the PFC100 Controller, WAGO offers an excellently equipped controller at a compelling cost-benefit ratio: This PLC combines the best from both the Linux® and CODESYS worlds into one device. This compact controller (PLC) offers a flexible solution not only for industrial process applications, but also for mechanical engineering applications.

Your benefits with WAGO PFC100 Controller includes:
  • Cost-effective configuration via e!COCKPIT Engineering Software
  • Cybersecurity via SSL/TLS encryption, VPN and a firewall
  • Integrated Webserver
  • microSD card
  • Web visualization in HTML5
  • Linux® real-time operating system

What Makes the PFC100 Controller Successful?

Advanced, Economical and Efficient Configuration

The PFC100 Controller can be seamlessly integrated into WAGO's e!COCKPIT Engineering Software, which can be used for hardware configurations, programming, simulations and visualization of complex control tasks. Tightly integrated automation software and controller hardware provide the ideal platform for advanced and intuitive CODESYS V3-based engineering. The controller supports protocols such as Modbus TCP Client/Server or open-source TCP/UDP communication. The serial interface also supports Modbus RTU as a client and server.

Comprehensively Equipped

The features of the programmable logic controller are impressive: On the inside, PFC100 sports a 600 MHz Cortex A8 processor offering high processing performance for this controller class. Depending on the model, the controller boasts two ETHERNET interfaces, an RS-232/RS-485 interface or a DIP switch. The ETHERNET ports can also be used as ETHERNET switches to create a line topology. An additional advantage is that they can be configured individually (DUAL LAN), so that if necessary, two separate networks can be established using the controller. Larger image files can be stored on an SD card for Web visualization.

Compact Design Saves Costs

Both the PFC100 and WAGO-I/O-SYSTEM feature a compact design for an incredibly space-saving DIN-rail-mount installation. This minimizes control cabinet dimensions, saves costs by conserving installation space and enables complex systems to be built in a smaller footprint. The controller has its own Webserver for visualizations in HTML5. VPN links can be established directly from the controller. This reduces the need for additional investment costs.

Investment Protection for Future Requirements

Last but not least, WAGO's user-friendly controller is a smart solution that offers a high degree of investment security for long-term automation. Simple wiring and easily exchangeable I/O components are additional benefits that ensure short installation times while preventing unnecessary errors. The scalable I/O system enables the automation of individual machines all the way up to entire systems. A large selection of 500+ different I/O modules offers maximum flexibility and functional variety for easily adaptating to new or changing applications.

Cybersecurity via SSL/TLS Encryption

Protect your data from hackers and any other unauthorized access! Networking industrial systems via the Internet has made control systems more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The PFC100 offers comprehensive security packages including SSL/TLS, SSH, VPN and a firewall. This high level of protection allows the controller to mitigate the effects of an attack on machines and systems.

Embedded Linux

Embedded Linux is available for users who are ready to take complete control and prefer directly using a lean and secure operating system. This real-time Linux® software provides a wide range of advantages, including the flexibility of using open-source code that adapts the source code to a user's specific needs at any time. Another huge advantage: Extend the functionality of your control application on the PFC200 by integrating open source packages or with external CODESYS libraries in the base image.


All WAGO Controllers are compatible with the high-performing CODESYS industry standard. This enables software development in the IEC 61131-3 PLC programming languages (ST, FBD, LD, IL, SFC and CFC). As a trusted programming environment, CODESYS guides developers, enabling them to reuse and further develop existing programs without relearning software. This means that modern paradigms, such as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), or modern visualization technologies are available.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Electromechanical Relays (EMR) Pros (Advantages)
  • Lower initial cost compared to solid state relays.
  • Provides complete electrical isolation.
  • Tolerates high current & voltage transients.
  • Insensitive to electromagnetic interference (EMI) / radio frequency interference (RFI).
  • Higher open resistance (air gap).
  • Lower closed resistance.
  • Available with many poles/circuits (up to 8 or more).
  • Many different circuit configurations available.
  • Multiple packaging & feature options.
  • Most typical failure mode is open.

Electromechanical Relays (EMR) Cons (Disadvantages)
  • Higher control (coil) power consumption.
  • Contact arcing can cause pitting & eventual open/short failure.
  • Contacts can be affected by corrosion, oxidation or contamination.
  • Contact bounce possible due to shock & vibration.
  • Generates electromagnetic interference (EMI) / radio frequency interference (RFI).
  • Can be orientation sensitive.
  • Can be affected by external magnetic fields.
  • Subject to mechanical degradation over time (residual magnetism, armature flexing, spring stretching).
  • Potential higher overall cost over equipment life.
  • Can be noisy.

Solid State Relays (SSR) Pros (Advantages)
  • Substantially longer life compared to mechanical relays.
  • Low control power consumption.
  • Faster on/off cycling.
  • Allows very fine proportional output control.
  • No arcing (safer in hazardous environments).
  • No contact bounce.
  • Not orientation sensitive.
  • Switching not affected by shock & vibration.
  • Not affected by external magnetic fields.
  • Less electromechanical interference.
  • Silent operation.
  • Allows many functions in a single package.
  • Potentially lower overall cost over equipment life.

Solid State Relays (SSR) Cons (Disadvantages)
  • Higher initial cost compared to mechanical relays.
  • Generate more heat compared to mechanical relays.
  • Current rating may require derating based on ambient temperature.
  • Voltage or current transients can damage or affect operation.
  • Susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI) / radio frequency interference (RFI).
  • Lower off state resistance.
  • Higher on state resistance.
  • Most are single pole/circuit (some available with up to 4).
  • Normally closed/ON function available on a limited basis.
  • Changeover form/circuit not supported.
  • Most typical failure mode is shorted/closed.

A solid-state relay (SSR) or solid-state contactor (SSC) is an electronic component that switches power (AC or DC current) to a load circuit and provides electrical isolation between an application’s control circuit and load circuit. It is a competitive technology to electromechanical relays (EMRs) and other switching technologies such as mercury displacement relays (MDRs).

Why use solid state switching technology?
  • Long service life
  • Quiet operation
  • Minimum electrical noise
  • Low power consumption
  • Shock & vibration resistant
  • Ideal for harsh environments
  • High compatibility with control systems
  • Reduced weight
  • Position insensitive
  • Fast switching
  • Magnetic noise immunity
  • Reduce energy cost
Solid state relays & solid-state contactors applications

Although there are literally thousands of individual uses for solid state relays and solid-state contactors, most can be categorized into the following applications:

Heating control application

This encompasses the largest segment of solid-state relay users.

Applications include, but are not limited to: professional food equipment, plastic molding/extrusion machinery, heating ventilation air conditioning & refrigeration (HVAC&R) and soldering equipment.

Benefits include: Long life, no maintenance, safe product, easy to interface, as well as enabling temperature accuracy. Suitable for heaters, fans, blowers and valve control.

Motion control applications

Applications include, but are not limited to: elevators, lifts, hoists, exercise equipment, conveyor
systems, solar trackers, fans, solenoids and valve control.

Benefits include: Endurance, shock & vibration resistance, soft start, reversing, no arcing, fast switching, long life, no maintenance, easy to interface, reduced parts count.

Power control applications
Power applications cover switching of power supplies, transformers, regulators, inverters, converters, UPS systems, etc.

Benefits include: Easy to interface, no arcing, immune to magnetic noise, automated switching,
low electrical noise, no maintenance, shock and vibration resistant.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

New TÜV-certified QUINT 20+ power supply for applications up to SIL 3

Phoenix Contact’s premium QUINT POWER line now includes a single-device solution that meets functional safety applications up to Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 3. The new QUINT 20+ power supply has an integrated decoupling MOSFET and double overvoltage protection circuitry to meet rigorous SIL 3 safety regulations without the need for external redundancy.

The QUINT 20+ power supply introduces a single conformally coated device solution with ATEX, IECEx and Class I, Division 2 approvals, which allows the power supply to be mounted within potentially explosive areas (Zone 2). The functional safety approval allows the QUINT 20+ power supply to be used in applications up to SIL 3, according to IEC 61508. The safety function is to limit the output voltage to 30 V DC, and if higher, to switch off within 20 milliseconds. The safe state is no output voltage. Designed with double overvoltage circuitry, the QUINT 20+ power supply also has a Hardware Fault Tolerance (HFT) of 1.

What is SIL and why is SIL important?

Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is a measure of safety system performance in terms of the probability of failure on demand.  As the SIL increases, the safety level of the product increases, meaning the probability that the system will fail to perform properly decreases. Often used in the processing industry, SIL provides intricate safety regulations to ensure the avoidance of catastrophic accidents and errors that can be detrimental to the most stringent operations.

Phoenix Contact’s QUINT4-PS/1AC/24DC/20/+ (2904617) power supply has been certified for functional safety applications in accordance to IEC 60950-1 and IEC 61010-1 and multiple EMC standards including EN61000-6-7. The power supply guarantees superior system availability with an integrated decoupling MOSFET and an overvoltage protection circuitry with SIL 3, HFT = 1 certification in accordance with IEC 61508. With a protective conformal coating and ATEX/IECEx approval in accordance with the standards IEC 60079-0, IEC 60079-7, IEC 60079-11, and IEC 60079-15, the QUINT Plus power supply can also be mounted within potentially explosive areas (zone 2).

The OVP circuitry built in the QUINT4-PS/1AC/24DC/20/+ (2904617) can be used to set up single or redundant bulk power systems with proven OVP. The power supply can be used in applications up to SIL 3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The safety function is to limit the output voltage to 30 V DC. If the voltage rises above 30 V DC, the device will switch off within 20ms, creating a safe state of no output voltage.

Phoenix Contact’s premier QUINT POWER family now includes two new AC/DC power supplies with a 12 V DC output voltage. The new devices are available in 2.5 A and 7.5 A options. Both options are UL Listed and Class I, Division 2 approved. The 2.5 A version is also NEC Class 2 rated.

Phoenix Contact’s QUINT POWER product family is expanding! The QUINT POWER AC/DC power supply family now include low-wattage options ranging from 30 W – 100 W.  These low-wattage power supplies offer advanced functionality and capabilities such as a powerful dynamic boost and preventative function monitoring.

QUINT POWER low wattage features maximum functionality and more
  •     Preventative function monitoring with an adjustable signal output enables LED and remote digital monitoring to detect critical operating states before faults occur
  •     Dynamic power boost of up to 200 percent of the nominal current for up to five seconds offers the option to reliably start inductive loads without disrupting the output voltage
  •     Permanent static power boost of up to 125 percent of the nominal current gives users the option to easily extend the system without switching to a larger power supply (1.3 A and 2.5 A versions)
  •     Choice of either push-in or screw connection
  •     Compact design creating essential space savings for smaller applications
  •     High efficiency allowing for energy savings, lower self-heating, and an increased service life of the power supply
  •     Device startup at -40°C ensuring reliable operation under extreme ambient conditions
  •     Class I Division 2 approved
  •     Options with NEC Class 2 for current limiting applications
The world's best power now includes miniaturized varieties! We have added low-wattage devices to our premium QUINT POWER family to incorporate compact application designs with maximum functionality!

QUINT POWER family addition

The QUINT POWER product family now includes 12 V DC and 24 V DC, single-phase devices up to 100W. These additions have low-wattage capabilities with premium functionality features. The QUINT POWER low wattage power supplies are tailored to meet critical application requirements that demand high functionality in a space-saving design. These QUINT POWER power supplies provide opportunities for analytical and strategic application designs in the most ambient and rigorous conditions. Connection options include push-in and screw technology for easy and flexible installation.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

We have introduced Switch Mode Power Supply S8FS-G. Superior Basic Performance That Ensures Reliability. Wide Range of Standards Certification and Greater Usability.
  • Superior basic performance that ensures reliability
    Ambient temperatures up to 70°C, greater resistance to rusting with aluminum/stainless steel case, and applications at altitudes up to 3,000 m.
  • Certification for Global Standards
    North America: UL 508 (Listing), CSA C22.2
    Europe: Overvoltage Category III (EN 50178)
    EMI: Class B (EN 61204-3)
    No need for control circuit transformers for which the Machinery Directive is specified. (IEC 61558-2-16)
  • Greater Usability
    The Terminal Block Cover prevents screws from dropping out and the Front Cover prevents ingress of foreign matter.
An IEC 61558-2-16 compliant transformer is built into the Power Supply to eliminate the need for a transformer with compound windings for control circuits for which IEC 60204-1 Machinery Directive is specified. This helps reduce cost and space requirements.

Stable operation in severe installation environments, such as those with high ambient temperatures and humidity, or large vibration or those with unstable input voltages.

You can prevent foreign matter ingress and screw drop out that can result in product failure and accidents for worry-free installation and maintenance work.

We have introduced NX-series CPU Units NX1P2. 

Up to eight axes of control via EtherCAT
  • Integrated sequence control and motion control
  • Up to eight axes of control via EtherCAT
  • Up to four synchronized axes - electronic gear/cam and linear/circular interpolation
  • Standard-feature EtherCAT control network support
  • Safety subsystem on EtherCAT
  • Standard-feature EtherNet/IP port
  • Built-in I/O
  • Up to eight NX I/O Units connectable
  • Up to two option boards connectable to add serial communications or analog I/O functionality
  • Battery-free operation
  • Fully conforms with IEC 61131-3 standard programming
EtherCAT connects I/O devices, motion devices, safety controllers, and vision systems with a single cable. You can check machine information by monitoring the status of the connected. EtherNet/IP enables communications with a host PC and data links between NJ/NX Controllers and CJ PLCs.

You can start predictive maintenance with visualization of the status of a small-sized machine. IO-Link functionality can be added to existing machines.

Sysmac is a trademark or registered trademark of OMRON Corporation in Japan and other countries for OMRON factory automation products. Windows is either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. EtherCAT® is registered trademark and patented technology, licensed by Beckhoff Automation GmbH, Germany. EtherNet/IP™ is the trademarks of ODVA. Other company names and product names in this document are the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. The product photographs and figures that are used in this catalog may vary somewhat from the actual products. Microsoft product screen shot(s) reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation. 

We have introduced Color Mark Sensors E3S-DC/E3NX-CA Series. 

Color Mark Detection on Any Type of Packaging.
  • Offer Stable Detection of Both Glossy and Colorful Packaging.
  • Light Is Received over a Wide Range: Enough Even for Glossy Packaging
  • Provides a High S/N Ratio to Detect Subtle Color Differences
 Light Is Received over a Wide Range: Enough Even for Glossy Packaging

This allows for the stable detection of glossy aluminum vapor deposition packaging simply install the Sensor directly above.

The included high luminance RGB three-color LED light emitting element drastically improves the light intensity. Meanwhile, Smart Noise Reduction technology in the Fiber Sensor is applied to reduce the amount of noise, resulting in a high dynamic range where the Sensor is not saturated even when detecting a mirror surface—without having to make any light intensity adjustments.

The high luminance white LED of the Fiber Amplifier Unit, and the high luminance RGB three-color LEDs and high efficiency optical system design of the Photoelectric Sensor deliver high power. "Smart Noise Reduction" (a light reception algorithm) and "N-Core" (a high-speed, high-precision IC) work together to dramatically reduce the effect of noise. Increasing the incident level and decreasing noise make it possible to obtain a high S/N ratio even when color differences are subtle.

RGB information for color marks and backgrounds for each lot is transmitted to a host and quantified. This information is then managed in a database, making it possible to set optimal thresholds and identify causes quickly if a problem occurs.

Until now, setting the threshold during commissioning required the knowledge of an expert. Now it is possible to get the optimal setting just by registering the RGB ratio of the packaging.

When the Sensor makes false detection, values can be checked to determine whether color variation from lot to lot in packaging material has occurred, making it easy to identify what has caused a problem and to then resolve it.

We have introduced Fiber Unit E32-LT35Z. Optical Axis Adjustment in 20 Sec and Ultra-high-power Beam Greatly Reduce Installation and Maintenance Work.
  • The Optimum Aperture Angle and Optical Axis Accuracy
    Enable Optical Axis Adjustment in 20 Sec Even for Minute 0402-size Workpieces
  • Built-in Mirror Lens
    Provides an Ultra-high-power Beam
The optimum aperture angle that obtains a sufficient incident level for stable detection without making precise adjustment combines with high-quality optical axis accuracy with an optical axis inclination variation of ±2.5° or less between individual products to enable optical axis adjustment that is much faster than for previous products. All Fiber Units are inspected with a special jig before they are shipped to enable reliable installation without variations between individual products.

Finding the horizontal head (Fiber Unit) offset in the incident light range for a specific incident level of 1,500 during installation shows just how much wider the range is for the E32-LT35Z in comparison with a previous product (E32-T15ZR). In comparison with the difficult optical axis adjustment of previous products, the optical axis of the E32-LT35Z can be roughly adjusted in a short period of time to obtain the incident level required for stable detection.

The offset between the optical axis and mechanical axis is within ±2.5°, so a sufficient incident level can be achieved merely by aligning the mechanical axis at installation.

A concave mirror lens (patent pending) produces a divergent beam that achieves both easy adjustment and light emission power. An ultra-high-power beam is provided that is approx. five times that of previous products with no lens. A sufficient incident level can be obtained for stable detection even if the optical axis is offset over a long period of usage and even if the emitter/receiver section becomes dirty. You can reduce the maintenance frequency in comparison with previous products.

OMRON highly recommends these new-standard Fiber Units with a Built-in Lens that provide stable detection with a high-power beam. You don’t have to worry about the lens falling off and getting lost. 

Wednesday, July 06, 2016

Improving performance, maintaining reliability and reducing system cost were the basic requirements expressed to Lenze Americas by the engineering team at Pistorius Machine Company. Founded in 1937, Pistorius manufactures equipment for many diverse applications including mitering and double-cut machines plus dust collection, milling & haunching, and finishing systems.

Pistorius selected a Lenze Americas System including a PositionServo Drive, an MAS series brushless servo motor, and a G-motion planetary gear reducer to drive the steel belt linear actuator in their electronic automated gauging equipment. The gear reducer, which was customized to fit the appropriate mounting configuration of Pistorious’s actuator, provides good stable motion by limiting the amount of inertial mismatch between the actuating load and the driving rotor of the servo motor. In addition, by multiplying the output torque of the motor while dividing its input speed by the gear ratio, the gearbox permits the use of a smaller motor but one that is still capable of producing higher rotational speeds. In summary, Pistorius engineers believe that the geared Lenze AC Tech brushless servo is a space-effective, less costly package that results in better system performance.

The Lenze Americas solution provides precise single axis motion control and allows communication over Ethernet for custom-measurement of distances and speeds. The EPM, or electronic programmable memory chip, and the full functionality of the PositionServo eliminate the need for Pistorius to use an additional controller to coordinate motion. The Pistorius Electronic Automated Gage Model 10G allows virtually any operator to make error-free stop settings time after time, dramatically improving quality, and eliminating incorrectly cut parts.

Product Benefits
  • Complete Motion Solution
  • Small Footprint
  • PLC Capability of PositionServo
  • Removable Memory (EPM)
  • Ethernet Communication, Standard
  • Quick, Intuitive Programming
  • Improved System Performance
  • Competitive Pricing